|א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ל מ נ ס ע פ צ ק ר ש ת|
father of יַעֲשִׂיאֵל
אַבְנֵר בֶּן נֵר (אֲבִינֵר) (שמואל א יד:נ, כו, שמואל ב ב, ג)
שאול 's cousin and general of his army. דוד accuses אבנר of not protecting שאול adequately when דוד has an opportunity to kill שאול . After שאול 's death, אבנר crowns שאול 's son איש בשת king over Israel. אבנר challenges דוד 's general, יואב בן צרויה , to a battle and Israel's soldiers get routed (losing 360 men to דוד 's 20) although אבנר does kill יואב 's brother עֲשָׂהאֵל . After אִישׁ בֹּשֶׁת accuses אבנר of sleeping with שאול 's concubine רִצְפָּה בַּת אַיָה , אבנר defects to דוד 's camp and convinces the elders of Israel to accept דוד as their king. Nevertheless, even though אבנר has become דוד 's ally, יואב kills אבנר in revenge for his brother עשהאל 's death. דוד is appalled at this treachery and curses יואב and his family for slaying a great warrior of Israel.
אִבְצָן (שופטים יב:ח-י)
Tenth שׁוֹפֵט of Israel, אִבְצָן is from בֵּית לֶחֶם and judges for seven years. אִבְצָן has 30 sons and 30 daughters. The מדרש claims that אבצן and בעז are one and the same (בבא בתרא צא .).
אַבְרָהָם (בראשית יא-כה, דברי הימים א א:כז )
Founding father of Judaism, the first of Israel's three patriarchs: אברהם , יצחק , יעקב . Born אַבְרָם in אוּר כַּשְׂדִים , he represents the tenth generation after נח . The תורה reveals nothing about אברם 's childhood, but the מדרש tells us stories about the patriarch intuiting the existence of God and smashing idols in his father's idol shop (see for example במדבר רבה יד :ב and בראשית רבה לח :ח ). אברם 's wife שָׂרַי is barren. Led by תרח , the family sets out from אור כשדים for ארץ כענן . They get as far as חָרָן where תרח dies (פרשת נח ). God appears to אברם and tells him to leave his homeland and travel to a land that He will show him. This first communication of God to אברם is considered the first of many tests posed by the Lord to אברהם . According to פרקי אבות , אברהם faces ten challenges in his long relationship with God (פרקי אבות ה :ג . Commentaries on this משנה provide different compilations of episodes to reach ten tests - see below). At this early point in אברם 's story, God promises to make אברם a great nation. אברם accedes to God's command and travels to כנען with his wife and his nephew לוט , following God's lead. Once there, God makes His second promise: to give the land to אברם 's descendants. These two promises: אברם will have many descendants, and they will inherit the land of Israel, are repeated often to אברהם as well as to יצחק and יעקב . The promises are referred to frequently in the rest of the תורה (see for example שמות ו :ד and שמות לב :יג ) and נ "ך , and remain strong beliefs in Judaism. A famine in כנען sends אברם and שרי to Egypt where אברם pretends that his wife is his sister. Upon returning to כנען , אברם and לוט part ways since each is very wealthy and their flocks require separate grazing land. לוט who chooses to live in סְדֹם gets caught up in a war between city states and אברם rushes to his rescue. In gratitude for his assistance, ברע , the king of סדם , offers the plunder to אברם who turns him down saying that he'd rather his wealth was attributed to God's beneficence and not the king's gifts. God again promises אברם that he will found a great nation and compares his descendants to the numerous stars (בראשית טו :ה ). God and אברם strike a covenant known as " בְּרִית בֵּין הַבְּתָרִים " in which the promise of the land is again enunciated. During this episode God informs אברם that his descendants will be oppressed in a foreign land. Following his wife's suggestion, אברם marries הגר , שרי 's maid, so that she may bear אברם a child, since שרי remains barren. אברם is 86 years old when הגר gives birth to a son, ישמעאל . God appears to אברם again, promising to give him the land and to make him the founder of a great nation. To emphasize this second point God changes His beneficiary's name from אברם to אברהם , arguing that אברהם signifies "father of a multitude of nations" (בראשית יז :ה ). It is at this time that God introduces the practice of circumcision to אברהם . He is commanded to circumcise himself and all future male descendants. This will be the physical sign of the covenant between God and אברהם 's family. God also renames שרי in preparation for her becoming a mother, changing her name to שרה . Upon hearing that he and his wife will have a son together, אברהם laughs. He is, after all, 99 years old at this point and שרה is 90. Nevertheless, God assures him that he will have a son and instructs that the boy be named יצחק . The covenant that God has forged with אברהם will find expression in יצחק . אברהם proceeds to circumcise himself, ישמעאל and all of his household (פרשת לך לך ). Three men come to visit אברהם and during the course of the encounter שרה overhears the news that she will give birth to a son in a year (according to the popular interpretation of this story the three men were angels. See רש "י on בראשית יח :א which is based on the מדרש from בבא מציעא פב :). God informs אברהם that He plans on destroying the towns of סְדֹם and עֲמֹרָה due to the wickedness of their inhabitants. This leads to a lengthy dialogue between God and אברהם wherein the latter begs God to spare the towns. אברהם travels to גְּרָר where he again presents his wife as his sister. אבימליך , the king, takes שרה . He is warned by God in a dream that he will die for having taken a married woman. אבימלך confronts אברהם who defends himself by arguing that indeed שרה is related to him on his father's side (see רש "י to בראשית כ :יב ), and by claiming that he had to protect himself from the immorality of the place. אבימלך sends the couple away with many gifts and later on forges a pact with אברהם . יצחק is born and is circumcised. אברהם 's other son ישמעאל makes sport of יצחק , and שרה demands that אברהם banish ישמעאל and הגר , saying that she will not have ישמעאל inherit along with יצחק . אברהם is upset by שרה 's request but God tells him to grant שרה 's wish. אברהם sends ישמעאל and הגר away, and God promises him that ישמעאל too will found a great nation. God gives אברהם his greatest test when He asks him to sacrifice יצחק on an altar - the episode known as עֲקֵדַת יִצְחָק . Without hesitation, אברהם takes his son and travels to a place indicated by God and prepares to kill his son. At the last moment אברהם is stopped by an angel who declares that אברהם has proven his complete faith by this act of utter submission to the will of God (פרשת וירא ). שרה dies at age 127, and after mourning her אברהם proceeds to buy a burial plot and cave from עפרון החתי , at a location in חֶבְרוֹן known as מְעָרַת הַמַּכְפֵּלָה . אברהם next sends his servant to his homeland to find a wife for יצחק . אברהם refuses to let his son marry a local girl and also warns the servant against taking יצחק out of כנען to settle in אברהם 's native land. אברהם lives to 175 and upon his death is buried in the family burial plot by his sons יצחק and ישמעאל (פרשת חיי שרה ). אברהם remains the father figure for the Jewish people and is generally called אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ - אברהם our father. The Bible, the prayer book and Jewish culture often recall the unique relationship אברהם had with God, sometimes referring to God as אֱלֹ -הֵי אַבְרָהָם - the God of אברהם . The Talmud credits אברהם with contributing to the composition of תהלים (בבא בתרא יד :. רש "י suggests that this means that אברהם and איתן האזרחי are one and the same; איתן is mentioned in תהלים פט :א .).
פרקי אבות ה :ג states that אברהם passes 10 tests put to him by God. Here is one list of these trials as assembled by the רמב "ם .
1. Emigration to a foreign country which God commands (בראשית יב :א -ו ).
2. The famine that אברהם encounters upon reaching his destination, though told he would prosper (יב :י ).
3. The treachery of the Egyptians when שרה is taken to the palace (יב :יד -כ ).
4. The war of the five kings versus the four that אברהם participates in (פרק יד ).
6. God's command to אברהם to circumcise himself (יז :ט -יד ).
7. The treachery of the king of גרר when שרה is taken by him (פרק כ ).
8. The banishment of הגר after she bore him a son (כא :ט -כא ).
9. The banishment of ישמעאל from the household (כא :ט -כא )
the former name of אַבְרָהָם
אַבְשָׁלוֹם בֶּן דָּוִד (שמואל ב ג:ג, יג-יח, דברי הימים א ג:ב)
דוד 's third son whose mother is מַעֲכָה בַּת תַּלְמַי . When אבשלום 's sister תמר is raped by their half brother אמנון , אבשלום takes תמר into his house. Two years after that, אבשלום gets his revenge when he kills אמנון at sheep shearing festivities. אבשלום then escapes to גשור to his maternal grandfather תלמי , with whom he stays for three years. Thanks to the intervention of יואב (אבשלום 's cousin) דוד is persuaded to allow אבשלום to return to ירושלים . Nevertheless, אבשלום is not allowed in the palace but remains unseen by דוד for two more years. In order to get יואב 's attention, אבשלום sets his field on fire; יואב then agrees to get אבשלום an audience with דוד . דוד embraces אבשלום but is soon betrayed by him. Chapters 15 through 19 in שמואל ב tell the story of אבשלום 's rebellion against דוד . אבשלום first builds up popular support among the people and then declares himself king in חברון . דוד flees ירושלים when he realizes that the nation is with his son. He takes with him soldiers and loyalists all weeping at their misfortune. אבשלום follows אחיתפל 's advice and sleeps with דוד 's concubines who have remained in ירושלים , a sign of אבשלום 's usurpation of his father's throne. But God forces אבשלום to accept חושי 's battle plan over אחיתפל 's which was objectively sounder. When דוד finally sends out an army to confront אבשלום 's forces, דוד 's men are victorious and 20,000 men of Israel are killed. אבשלום , riding a donkey under a terebinth tree, gets his hair caught in the branches and is stuck there. יואב hears that אבשלום is trapped and he kills the prince while he hangs in the tree. Before his death, אבשלום had set up a monument to himself called "יד אבשלום ".
father of שַׁמָּה
אֲגָג (שמואל א טו )
King of עמלק whom שאול fails to kill, leading to שאול 's dethronement. According to the midrash, אגג is the ancestor of המן (מגילה יג .).
אָגוּר בֶּן יָקֶה (משלי ל:א)
A contributing author to the book of משלי . According to the מדרש , the name אגור is a pseudonym for שלמה , the accepted author of the book (ילקוט שמעוני משלי רמז ).
אַדְבְּאֵל בֶּן יִשְׁמָעֵאל (בראשית כה:יג, דברי הימים א א:כט )
A son of ישמעאל .
אִדּו (עזרא ח:טו-כ)
The head of the Jewish community at כָּסִפְיָא . During his journey to Israel, עזרא realizes that his company lacks לְוִיִּם to serve in the rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem. He sends messengers to אדו asking him to supply the necessary men for the group heading towards the homeland. אדו complies and sends along roughly 40 לוים to fill the Levite jobs in the Temple.
אֲדַלְיָא בֶּן הָמָן (אסתר ט:ח)
המן 's ten sons are hanged following his downfall. אדליא is one of them.
אָדָם (בראשית א-ה, דברי הימים א א:א )
The world's first human. Created by God on the sixth day of creation, אדם and his counterpart, אשה (later named חוה ) are placed in גן עדן and commanded to populate the earth. אדם is given rule over all of nature and is permitted to subjugate the animal kingdom and to eat from all the plants he sees save from the עץ הדעת טוב ורע . The woman he is with is persuaded by the snake to eat this forbidden fruit and she then tempts אדם to partake as well. As punishment for their disobedience the couple is expelled from גן עדן and given individual punishments as well. אדם is told that his sustenance will from now on be secured only through toil. אדם has three sons: קין , הבל and שת and lives for 930 years (פרשת בראשית ). The Talmud credits אדם with contributing to the composition of תהלים (בבא בתרא יד :. רש "י suggests that תהלים קלט :טז is his work.).
אַדְמָתָא (אסתר א:יד )
One of King אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ 's closest advisors. Following the slight of Queen וַשְׁתִּי , he is among those consulted when the king seeks an appropriate response to his wife's disobedience.
אֲדֹנִי בֶזֶק (שופטים א)
A Canaanite king captured and killed during שבט יהודה 's conquest of its territory. אדני בזק is a wicked king who severs the thumbs and big toes of his captured foes and forces them (70 in all) to scrounge for scraps of food under his table. The men from יהודה disfigure him in like manner.
אֲדֹנִי צֶדֶק (יהושע י)
King of ירושלים from the nation of אֱמֹר . Upon hearing of יהושע 's conquest of יריחו and עי as well as the submission of the גבעונים , אדני צדק forges a pact with other local Amorite kings: הוהם , פראם , יפיע and דביר . Together the five attack גבעון for making peace with Israel. The outmanned גבעונים call יהושע for assistance. יהושע and his army arrive and defeat the five armies with two miracles thrown in by God to make the job easier.
אֲדֹנִיָּה (נחמיה י:יז)
A leader of the people during the time of נחמיה , אדניה is a signatory to a pledge - an אֲמָנָה - affirmed by the leaders of the community. Those who sign the declaration promise to observe the commandments of the Torah, to refrain from intermarrying, to avoid commerce on Shabbat, and to make regular donations to the Temple.
אֲדֹנִיָּהוּ (דברי הימים ב יז:ח)
The Judean king יהושפט is a righteous leader who walks in the ways of God. He sends a delegation of religious authorities on a circuit throughout the cities of יהודה to teach Torah to the people. אדניהו , a לוי , is one of the instructors in that group.
אֲדֹנִיָּה בֶּן דָּוִד (אֲדֹנִיָּה) (שמואל ב ג:ד, מלכים א א, ב, דברי הימים א ג:ב)
דוד 's fourth son. His mother is חַגִּית . When דוד becomes old and weak, אדניה decides that he will be the next king. He assembles chariots and runners and gathers some of his father's advisors- יואב בן צרויה and אביתר הכהן to support him, spurning צדוק הכהן , בניהו בן יהוידע , נתן הנביא , and of course שלמה . While celebrating אדניה 's imminent coronation, יונתן בן אביתר arrives with news that דוד has chosen שלמה as Israel's next leader. The party breaks up suddenly and אדניה , fearing שלמה , runs and seizes the horns of the מזבח believing that he will be safe there. שלמה sends word that if אדניה behaves, no harm will come to him. After דוד dies אדניה asks בת שבע to appeal to שלמה to grant him דוד 's concubine, אבישג השונמית , as a wife. שלמה sees this as a challenge to his throne and he has אדניה killed by בניהו בן יהוידע . The story of אדניה 's attempt to seize Israel's throne and דוד 's selection of שלמה to succeed him (מלכים א פרק א ) is read as the הפטרה for פרשת חיי שרה .
אֲדֹנִיקָם (עזרא ב:יג, ח:יג, נחמיה ז:יח )
666 (or 667) of this man's descendants return to יהודה with זְרֻבָּבֶל following the edict of כּוֹרֶשׁ . Other descendants of his accompany עזרא to Israel from בבל .
אֲדֹנִירָם בֶּן עַבְדָּא (אֲדֹרָם , הֲדֹרָם) (מלכים א ד:ו, ה:כח, דברי הימים ב י:יח)
Labour minister under שלמה המלך and under his son רחבעם , responsible for enlisting people to work for the state. אדנירם is put in charge of organizing and dispatching labourers to cut timber in Lebanon for שלמה 's construction of the בית המקדש . After רחבעם 's rise to the throne, the king announces that he will be tougher on the people than his father was. אדרם was the first casualty of this policy. רחבעם sends אדרם to quell the rebellion against him, and the people of ישראל stone him to death.
אַדָּר בֶּן בֶּלַע (דברי הימים א ח:ג)
אֲדֹרָם (שמואל ב כ:כד)
דוד 's tax collector.
אַדְרַמֶּלֶךְ בֶּן סַנְחֵרִיב (מלכים ב יט:לז, ישעיה לז:לח)
Son and assassin of סנחריב מלך אשור .
אֹהַד בֶּן שִׁמְעוֹן (בראשית מו:י, שמות ו:טו )
אֵהוּד בֶּן בִּלְהָן (דברי הימים א ז:י)
אֵהוּד בֶּן גֵּרָא (שופטים ג)
The second of the שופטים , this judge from שבט בנימין leads a rebellion against the מואב king, עגלון . אהוד is left-handed which allows him to sneak a double-edged sword into the palace on his right thigh. At the right moment, אהוד stabs the king in the stomach and escapes to lead the Jews in battle against the oppressors. Following this victory, the land is peaceful for 80 years.
אֹהֶל (דברי הימים א ג:כ)
A son or grandson of זְרֻבָּבֶל and hence either a great-grandson or great-great-grandson of יְהוֹיָכִין , the nineteenth king of יהודה .
אָהֳלָה (יחזקאל כג)
The name given to the kingdom of ישראל (represented by its capital שמרון ) by the prophet יחזקאל when the land is portrayed as an unfaithful woman. Her sister kingdom יהודה is called אָהֳלִיבָה .
אָהֳלִיאָב בֶּן אֲחִיסָמָךְ (שמות לא:ו, לה:לד, לו:א, לח:כג )
This craftsman from שבט דן is appointed by God to assist בצלאל in the construction of the משכן utensils (פרשיות כי תשא , ויקהל , פקודי ).