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A leader of the people during the time of   is a signatory to a pledge - an affirmed by the leaders of the community. Those who sign the declaration promise to observe the commandments of the Torah, to refrain from intermarrying, to avoid commerce on Shabbat, and to make regular donations to the Temple.



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Nineteenth king of Israel who reigns following his assassination of   is a sinful king, and is forced to become a vassal of   king of At a certain point   refuses to pay tribute to him and attempts to build an alliance with Egypt's king   imprisons   and exiles the people of   to   is the last king of Israel. In a lengthy passage ( : - ) the text attributes Israel's and Judah's misfortunes to widespread abandonment of God.



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A prophet during the late First Temple period. From the first verse of 's  book we learn that the prophet was active during the tenure of the Israelite king as well as during the reigns of four Judean kings: and who were 's  10th to 13th kings. God's first communication to   is a command for him to marry a prostitute, symbolizing Israel's abandonment of God for other faiths (1:2). (The theme of infidelity is further developed in chapter 2.)   marries a woman named who bears him three children; each is given a symbolic name. The first child is named   which has two meanings: God will "plant" Israel in its land after the nation has been punished for its sins, but God will first destroy the kingdom of Israel which contains the region known as the 'valley of '.  The second child is a girl named   indicating that God will have no mercy on His people. The third child, a boy, is named of God is disowning His people by declaring they are "not my nation". Nevertheless, God promises that the threat of each name will be reversed in the future: the symbolism of   will be replaced as Israel will be called - children of the living God;   will be rebuilt; God will show compassion for His people. After   betrays   by sleeping with other men, the prophet is told to take her back, just like God will take back his straying nation (chapter 3). Indeed, God declares that after the nation of Israel has been with other gods, He will marry her again -

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I will betroth you unto Me forever; I will betroth you unto Me in righteousness, and in justice and in kindness and compassion; I will betroth you unto Me in faithfulness and you will know the Lord (2:21-22). Nevertheless, while   does hold out a pledge of hope of salvation and redemption (2:1-3, 2:16-25), his primary message remains a warning to the people of impending doom and exile (2:4-15, 5:8-15, 8:5, 10:13-15, chapter 13, 14:1).

The following are some additional themes that   emphasizes in his communications.

a. Israel is sinful and corrupt, and ignores God (chapter 4, 6:4-7:7, 8:1, 8:14, 9:10-17, chapter 12, 13:6)

b. Israel's   and ministers lead the people in misbehaving (4:4-10, 5:1-7)

c. God desires obedience rather than sacrifices (6:6, 8:13)

d. Israel is called upon to repent (10:12, chapter 14)

e. God has always loved Israel and will show her mercy (chapter 11)

Several   (supplemental Shabbat readings) are taken from the prophecies of Here is a list of those   and their corresponding selections from (Chapter numbers do not always indicate that the full chapter is read.)

12-14 ( ) 11-12 ( ), 11-12 ( ), 2, 14.




the former name of



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The chief of   in the time of .



father of



father of



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An official from   in the time of   who participates in the ceremonies dedicating the walls of .


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