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A soldier from   who joins   in .



father of



  ( :)
A soldier from   who joins   in .



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A prophet during the siege and destruction of Jerusalem.   is a   from the town of   (north of 's  capital in ) who has the difficult and painful task of predicting the end of the kingdom of Judea to Kings   and 's  personal life suffers in several ways from the impending tragedy facing the nation. God tells him not to marry nor to have children, for Jerusalem's children and their mothers will meet horrible deaths. He is arrested several times, beaten and imprisoned. The prophet's life is an unhappy one as he pleads with an unresponsive public to heed his calls for repentance.   faces stiff competition for the hearts of his coreligionists from false prophets who teach that the people have nothing to worry about, Jerusalem will be saved from the might of   ,   as she had been from   in the time of Needless to say, 's  career is an unsatisfying one. He is reluctant to heed God's call to prophecy (1:4-10) despite God's encouragement to him (1:8, 1:17-19, 6:27, 15:20-21).   despairs over his life and his mission (15:10, 15:15-18, 20:7-18) not least of all because he is distraught over the fate awaiting his people (8:18-23). When Jerusalem is indeed conquered by   (under King ) who exiles thousands of its citizens, the same false prophets give assurances that the exile will be short and that the stolen Temple utensils will be returned with the Judean exiles. Again,   has the unenviable task of preaching that in fact the exile will not end quickly and that the Temple will not survive the coming conquest of For his trouble,   is hounded by national leaders, neighbours and even his family who see in him a traitor who urges the king and his people to surrender the holy city to spare its destruction. The assessment of 's  enemies is partially true. He does encourage submission to but he is motivated strictly by his love for the city and its people and a desire for minimal destruction. Overall, the prophet teaches that repentance from sin and abandonment of idolatry can allay God's wrath.   is by no means solely a prophet of doom. He sympathizes with the suffering of his exiled people and encourages them to make the best of their temporary sojourn in   speaks of the day when Judah will be restored and the exiled Jews will return to their homeland.

During the reign of   is appointed by God to serve as His mouthpiece (1:2). At the start of 's  rule,   is instructed to position himself in the court of the   and to call on the populace to return to God. 's  message is not received favourably: his fellow   and as well as common people seize him and call for his death in response to his threats of calamity. Naturally,   defends himself, arguing that he is indeed a messenger of God. The prophet warns his adversaries that they are threatening an innocent man.   is rescued from the clutches of the mob by the princes of A debate ensues in which both sides bring precedents to trust a prophet of doom on the one hand and to mistrust him on the other.   steps in and saves 's  life (chapter 26). To illustrate 's  betrayal of the commandments enjoined upon them by God, the prophet assembles a clan of people known as These descendants of   were committed by him to lead a nomadic lifestyle and to abstain from drinking any alcohol. Following God's instruction,   takes the people to the Temple and offers them wine.   refuse, claiming loyalty to their family tradition. This adherence to principle serves as a basis for 's  rebuke of   who have neglected the laws they received from God (chapter 35).   sends his scribe   to the Temple with a scroll to read to the public. In the scroll   calls for repentance in the face of impending punishment.   reads the scroll on a fast day and attracts the attention of (The entire   family seems to have had a close relationship with   saves   from a mob; his brother   takes 's  letter of hope to the exiles in 's  scribe   reads the prophet's scroll in the Temple chamber of a third son, whose son   is also present; lastly, 's  grandson governor of places   under his care following the fall of .)    brings a report of the scroll to other ministers and the document eventually makes its way to the king himself.   has the scroll read to him, but then burns it in rejection of its contents. God instructs   to write a second scroll, again employing the services of   to record God's word (chapter 36). When   returns to   cautions King   to submit willingly, for if he doesn't, God will send additional sufferings in the forms of famine and plague (chapter 27).   gets into a debate regarding his message with a false prophet.   argues that although   was exiled to   by the current king   will not be taken because within two years time, 's  hold over   will be broken.   tries to convince the people that   is a liar and that he does not speak for God.   argues that the future will prove that he is the true prophet and that   is a sham (chapter 28). Chapter 29 of   contains a letter that the prophet sends to the Judean people exiled to Babylonia with Although throughout his career   rebukes his coreligionists for their sinful lives, this letter is one of comfort and instruction. In it he mentions that their sojourn in   will be lengthy.   advises the people to settle in their new homes, to build houses and to raise families. They will be in   for 70 years and they should make the best of it. In a novel statement, he tells the exiles to pray for the welfare of their new state, arguing that general peace will benefit them. This message invokes the ire of a false prophet in   named   who vents his anger in a letter to the   in In this letter,   takes   to task for not acting against   whom, he claims, has made false statements regarding the fate of the Judean exiles.   sends another letter to his brethren in   telling them that the self-appointed prophet   is not God's spokesman, and that   will be punished for claiming that he is (chapter 29).   is optimistic that the exile of 's  people and the desolation of the land will be temporary. To illustrate this sentiment the prophet buys an estate during 's  darkest hour. This tale is related in chapter 32 of   had been imprisoned by King   for predicting the fall of the city. A cousin of visits him in prison and asks him to buy his field.   does so, declaring that soon fields and vineyards will be bought by Jews resettling in the land.   expresses doubt to God about the purchase, arguing that   is on the verge of collapse; why has he bought the field? God reassures him that though the city will be decimated, it will also be revitalized. King   induces the wealthy among his citizens to free their Jewish slaves in fulfillment of the Biblical command limiting Jewish servitude. Nevertheless, the owners soon reclaim their servants, leading to more rebuke from the prophet (chapter 34). King   twice appeals to   to pray on behalf of the city of   (chapters 21 and 37). In both instances, the prophet informs his king that the city will be lost. At one point   leaves   for   but he is arrested by a captain of   named   who accuses him of defecting to the The prophet naturally denies the charge but is nevertheless turned over to 's  ministers who beat him and then imprison him in the jail of   fetches him from prison and again inquires as to the fate of Again,   is unable to give the king good news and he warns him that Egypt will be unable to help   against He pleads with   to ameliorate the conditions of his incarceration, which the king does (chapter 37).   is next arrested by four ministers in 's  government who are convinced that his prophecies of doom are weakening the morale of the people. They persuade the king to allow them to toss   into a pit of mud or clay. A different minister,   asks the king to spare 's  life, arguing that he will surely die of starvation if left in the pit.   agrees to this request too, and then once again meets with the prophet regarding the future of   advises the king to surrender to the officers of   lest they set loose the   to burn down the city.   helps the prophet by finding him a more hospitable prison (chapter 38). The fulfillment of 's  prophecies is reported in chapter 39 of his book (and repeated in detail in chapter 52).   conquers   and burns the city. He then orders his officers not to harm   and men are sent to find the prophet. The captain, gives   a choice: he may join his exiled compatriots in   and live under 's  protection, or stay in   chooses the latter and is handed over to   (chapter 40). Following 's  assassination, the Judeans remaining in led by   and   approach   and ask for advice concerning the future of the community.   prays to God on their behalf and reports back to the people: if they stay in   all will be well with them, and they will have nothing to fear from if they flee to Egypt thinking they will be safe there, the sword and the plague will follow them (chapter 42). The people ignore this advice and accuse 's  aide, of influencing him so that the people will stay and then be exiled to The entire company sets off for Egypt, taking   and   with them. On the border of Egypt,   repeats his prediction that the refugees will only find trouble in Egypt as   will conquer that land too (chapter 43). In Egypt,   admonishes the people for practicing idolatry, but his warnings are ignored (chapter 44). Included in 's  final prophecies are railings against Israel's neighbours. The prophet details the destruction of   and He then records these prophecies and sends them to   with   (chapters 50-51). According to the Gemara   wrote the book which bears his name, as well as   and   ( .)

The following are selected themes (with some references) that   promotes in his speeches.

a. God is creator and master of the world (5:21-24, 10:10-16, 14:22, 27:5, 51:15-16).

b.   will be punished for the universal practice of idolatry (1:16, 7:17-18, 7:30-31). Foreign gods of course are powerless (10:1-16, 11:12-13), and worshipping them represents a betrayal of God (2:13, 2:19-20, 2:27-28, 3:6, 5:19).

c. Social injustice is rampant (5:1-2, 5:28, 7:5-6, 21:11-12) with greed and deceit soiling the land (6:13, 9:2-8, 22:3).

d. God does not want sacrifices that are accompanied by sin rather than repentance (6:20, 7:9-11, 7:21-26).

e. Israel is called upon to repent (3:14, 4:3-4, 4:14) and she eventually will (3:21-25).

f.   observance will return the people to God (17:19-27).

g. The people refuse to listen to rebuke (5:3-5, 6:10, 6:16-17).

h. False prophets mislead the nation (14:13-15, 23:9-40, 29:21-32) as do ministers and other leaders by plying the people with false hope (6:14, 8:11).

i. Israel is threatened with punishment for her behaviour (4:6-9, 4:13, 4:20-31, 5:14-17, 6:18-19, 7:32-34, 8:1-3, 10:18-22, 11:11-12, 15:1-9, 18:16-17, 19:3-13, 21:4-10).

j. It is a false assumption that God will spare Jerusalem and that He will not destroy His Temple (7:4, 7:12-15).

k. Man should put trust only in God, not in man (17:5-8) and not in human achievement (9:22-23) or in other nations (2:18).

l. God remembers the covenant (11:1-8) and the old days when He had a good relationship with Israel (2:2-3) but Israel is ungrateful for God's goodness to them (2:4-8).

m. Even though Israel is punished, the nation of God will never be totally destroyed (5:18, 30:11). Exile is temporary (16:14-15) - the exile to   will last 70 years (25:12) - for God's relationship with Israel is as eternal as nature (31:34-36).

n. Following repentance conditions will improve (3:15-17, 4:1-2, 7:5-7) and Israel's future leaders will also be worthier (17:24-26, 23:1-8).

o. In the era of redemption Israel will be returned to her land (23:7-8, 30:1-12, 31:1-25, 32:37, 33:7, 33:11, 50:19-20). Jerusalem will be rebuilt (30:18-22) and other nations will flock to God (3:17-18).

p. The covenant with Israel will be renewed (31:26-33).

q. An oft-repeated message of   is that other nations besides Israel will be taken to task for their behaviour. Whoever smashes Israel will be punished (2:3, 30:16). Specifically, the following peoples will feel the wrath of God:   (25:19, 46),   (25:20), the   states (25:20, 47),   (25:21, 49:1-6),   (25:21, 49:7-22),   (25:21, 48),   and   (25:22, 47:4),   and   (25:23), the kings of   and   (25:25),   (25:25, 49:34-39), the king of   (25:26),   (49:23-27),   and   (49:28-33), and finally, the destroyers of   and   and   (25:12-14, 50-51).

The messages of the prophet contain several parables and allegories. Here are some examples which use these literary techniques:

1.   uses the imagery of Israel as a woman throughout the book. The woman is sometimes a loving bride (2:2) but also a straying one (2:32). Usually the woman is accused of committing adultery (3:1-10) and betraying her husband (3:20, 5:7). The woman's other lovers will reject her (30:14), but her man will take her back, ignoring her previous dalliances (31:3).

2. In chapter 13, God tells   to fetch a linen loincloth. After wearing it, he hides it away to later discover that it has decomposed. The piece of clothing symbolizes Israel's detachment from God and her consequent deterioration.

3. God is a potter who destroys the clay (Israel) He's working on when it doesn't turn out right, in order to start over (18:1-12).

4. Israel is like an earthen bottle which cannot be fixed if it turns out badly - it must be smashed (19:1-13).

5. The parable of the two baskets of figs appears in chapter 24. In this vision,   explains that God's hope lies in the Judeans (the good figs) who have been exiled rather than in those who have stayed in the land (the bad figs). The suffering of the exile will persuade the people to return to God.

6. God instructs   to fashion a yoke to wear, symbolizing the submission to   that Israel and her neighbours will experience (chapter 27).

Here is a short list of well known verses from the prophecies of

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Go and cry to the people of Jerusalem: Thus says the Lord, in your favour I remember the affection of your youth, your love as a bride; how you followed me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown.

: ' :

Thus says the Lord: let not the wise man glory in his wisdom; let not the mighty man glory in his strength; let not the rich man glory in his wealth.

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Pour out your wrath on the nations who have not heeded you; upon the clans who have not invoked your name. For they have devoured Jacob, they have devoured and consumed him, and laid waste his home.

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Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? Just as much can you do good, you who are practiced in doing evil!

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Though our iniquities testify against us, act Lord for the sake of Your name; though our backslidings are many and we have sinned against you.

: ' ' :

Blessed is he who trusts in the Lord, whose trust is the Lord alone.

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Heal me, O Lord, and let me be healed; save me and let me be saved; for Your are my glory.

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O house of Israel, can I not deal with you like this potter? says the Lord. Just like the clay in the hands of the potter, so are you in My hand, O Israel.

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Behold, my word is like fire, declares the Lord, and like a hammer that shatters rock!

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Thus says the Lord: the people who escaped the sword, found favour in the wilderness; so too, will Israel when I provide him with rest.

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For the Lord will ransom Jacob, will redeem him from one stronger than him.

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Thus says the Lord: a voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; she refuses to be comforted for her children who are gone.

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And there is hope for your future, declares the Lord, and your children will return to their country.

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Truly, Ephraim is a dear son to me, a child who is dandled; for as often as I speak of him, My thoughts still dwell on him; therefore my heart yearns for him, I surely will have compassion on him, declares the Lord.

( ) ' : ( ) ' - ' ' ':

Thus says the Lord: again there will be heard in this place which you say is waste, without man or beast - in the towns of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem that are desolate, without man, without inhabitant and without beast; the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of those who cry, "Give thanks to the Lord of Hosts, for the Lord is good, for his mercy endures forever!" as they bring thanksgiving offerings to the House of the Lord. For I will restore the captivity of the land to return as at the first, says the Lord.

Compare 33:10-11 to statements in 7:34, 16:9 and 25:10. Here is one of those contrasting verses.

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And I will cause to cease from the cities of Judah and from the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride; for the land will be desolate.

Several   (supplemental Shabbat readings) are taken from the prophecies of Here is a list of those   and their corresponding selections from (Chapter numbers do not always indicate that the full chapter is read.)

1-2 ( ), 46, 34, 7-9, 32, 16-17, 1-2, 2-4, ' 31, 8-9.




father of



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A hero in 's  army.



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A   who gives his name to the fourteenth family in the cycle of 24 divisions of   serving in the sanctuary.



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A   giant killed by .



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A descendant of ruler of .



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A soldier who joins   in .



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This descendant of   is in charge of a military division of 24,000 soldiers which serves   in the first month of every year.



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Son of   born to   after 's  death.



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A   and musician who plays in the sanctuary service in the time of He leads the group which works seventeenth in the cycle of 24 divisions of .



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A descendant of   who is pressured to give up his non-Jewish wife in the time of .



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Second-born son of .



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A descendant of .



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Third-born son of .



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One of 's  sons.



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A descendant of   whose family members return to   with .



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A   of the family of   whose descendants return to   with .



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A   of the family of   whose descendants return to   with .



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Following 's  reconstruction of the walls of a national assembly is called at which   reads to the people from the Torah. a helps   explain the Torah text to the community. He later joins other   in blessing the people and asking them to praise God.



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A   who gives his name to the ninth family in the cycle of 24 divisions of   serving in the sanctuary.



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A   who is a gatekeeper at the Temple in the time of .



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A   during the time of   is a signatory to a pledge - an affirmed by the leaders of the community. Those who sign the declaration promise to observe the commandments of the Torah, to refrain from intermarrying, to avoid commerce on Shabbat, and to make regular donations to the Temple.



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A   who is the head of his family in the time of the Second Temple.


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