|א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ל מ נ ס ע פ צ ק ר ש ת|
father of בֹּהַן
רְאוּבֵן (בראשית כט-נ, דברי הימים א ב:א, ה:א-ג )
Eldest son of both יעקב and לאה . לאה names her son ראובן because "God has seen (ראה ) my affliction." ראובן finds some mandrakes which he brings to his mother. His aunt רחל wants them and she trades לאה her conjugal rights for the plant (פרשת ויצא ). After רחל 's death, ראובן sleeps with בלהה . The מדרש (appearing in שבת נה :) argues that ראובן did not actually have relations with his step-mother, but rather took his father's bed from בלהה 's tent and removed it to his mother לאה 's tent (פרשת וישלח ). During the fateful episode of the sale of יוסף , ראובן is the one who attempts to save his little brother. יוסף comes to check on his brothers who are tending sheep away from home. The group sees יוסף from a distance and plots to kill him but ראובן intercedes and convinces the others to throw him into a pit instead, planning to rescue the lad later to restore him to his father. In ראובן 's absence the brothers (led by יהודה ) sell יוסף to some passing ישמעאלים , and when ראובן returns to retrieve יוסף he is distraught to find him gone (פרשת וישב ). During the crisis of the famine, ראובן 's position as leader of the family is further weakened. יעקב is reluctant to send בנימין to Egypt, a move which would satisfy the request of the ruler the brothers encountered on their first visit to secure food. ראובן tries to convince יעקב to send בנימין with them and tells his father that should he return without בנימין , יעקב may kill ראובן 's two sons. יעקב completely ignores this odd statement (פרשת מקץ ). The tribes of ראובן and גד as well as half of מנשה request land on the eastern side of the Jordan river rather than on the western side. They feel that the eastern side can better support their abundant cattle. משה grants their wish on condition that they participate in the battles on the western side of the river too (פרשת מטות ). יהושע reminds the tribe of their obligation in chapter 1 of ספר יהושע and in chapter 22 acknowledges that they have fulfilled their duty. After the tribes return to their land on the eastern side of the Jordan River, they construct an altar which is interpreted by the western Israelites as a break with the nation and a forbidden act. A delegation confronts the eastern community and threatens them with war if they do not remove the altar. The tribes answer that the altar they have built is not for sacrifices, but is a monument to their association with the rest of Israel (יהושע כב ). דתן and אבירם are notable personalities from שבט ראובן .
רְאוּמָה (בראשית כב:כד)
רְאָיָה (עזרא ב:מז, נחמיה ז:נ )
רְאָיָה בֶּן מִיכָה (דברי הימים א ה:ה)
רְאָיָה בֶּן שׁוֹבָל (דברי הימים א ד:ב)
רֹאשׁ בֶּן בִּנְיָמִין (בראשית מו:כא)
רֶבַע (במדבר לא:ח )
One of five kings of מדין killed in Israel's war against that nation (פרשת מטות ).
רִבְקָה (בראשית כב:כג, כד-כז)
Wife of יצחק . רבקה is the daughter of בתואל and the grand-daughter of אברהם 's brother נחור . רבקה is therefore אברהם 's great-niece as well as his daughter-in-law, making her יצחק 's first-cousin once removed. (She is also second-cousins with her sons יעקב and עשו . See the entry on יעקב for a detailed explanation of these relationships.) After שרה dies, אברהם sends his servant to אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם on a mission to find a wife for יצחק . Standing at a well, the servant decides to look for a woman who is kind enough to draw water for him and his camels. When רבקה appears and does just that, the servant is sure that God has arranged for him to find this woman for יצחק . The servant presents himself to רבקה 's father בתואל and brother לבן who agree to send רבקה back to אברהם 's household. רבקה first meets her husband as he walks in a field in the נגב . She covers her face with a veil as the servant relates the entire episode to יצחק . יצחק loves his wife who brings him comfort following the death of his mother (פרשת חיי שרה ). After twenty years of marriage רבקה finally conceives and has a difficult pregnancy. She receives a communication from God telling her that she is bearing twins, each of whom will found a nation, with the descendants of the older serving those of the younger. רבקה 's two sons, יעקב and עשו are of different temperaments; רבקה favours יעקב whereas יצחק prefers עשו . When her husband declares his intention to bless עשו before he dies, רבקה convinces יעקב to impersonate עשו and thus get the blessing for himself. עשו , realizing that his brother has stolen his blessing, vows to kill יעקב , and רבקה resolves to send יעקב to her brother לבן in order to save his life. As well, רבקה tells יצחק that she does not want her younger son to marry a כנענית woman. The mother instructs her son to seek one of his uncle לבן 's daughters in marriage (פרשת תולדות ). Although רבקה 's death is not reported in the תורה , her burial in מערת המכפלה is attested to by יעקב (בראשית מט :לא ).
רַבְשָׁקֵה (מלכים ב יח, ישעיה לו)
A representative of סנחריב king of אשור . סנחריב has marched on יהודה , conquering cities as he goes and occupying the city of לכיש south of ירושלים . רבשקה is sent (along with two other generals and an army) to confront חזקיה , king of יהודה . When he gets to ירושלים , רבשקה delivers a speech on behalf of his employer in which he tells חזיקה 's advisers that it is hopeless to rely on Egypt or indeed God for assistance. רבשקה delivers quite a discouraging speech in Hebrew in an attempt to convince the listening Jerusalemites to surrender. According to the Gemara רבשקה is an Israelite apostate (סנהדרין ס .).
רֶגֶם בֶּן יָהְדַּי (דברי הימים א ב:מז)
רֶגֶם מֶלֶךְ (זכריה ז)
רגם מלך and שַׂרְאֶצֶר are two men who approach the prophet זכריה (they seem to have been sent by somebody) with the following question: since the Temple is being rebuilt, what is to become of the fast days that have commemorated the destruction of the first בית המקדש ? זכריה answers that fast days are only meaningful if people use the opportunity to return to God. In any event, he replies, the fast days will indeed become times of celebration.
רַדַּי בֶּן יִשַׁי (דברי הימים א ב:יד)
רָוהְגָּה בֶּן שׁוֹמֵר (רָהְגָּה קרי) (דברי הימים א ז:לד)
Widow of מַחְלוֹן , daughter-in-law of נָעֳמִי and wife of בֹּעַז . רות is born into the nation of מוֹאָב but marries מחלון , an immigrant from בית לחם . מחלון and his brother כִּלְיוֹן both die and the brothers' mother נעמי decides to return to her homeland. נעמי tries to persuade her daughters-in-law, רות and עָרְפָּה (כליון 's widow) to remain in מואב instead of accompanying her back to יהודה . Both women are initially reluctant to accede to this request, but ערפה eventually remains in מואב , while רות continues on the voyage to נעמי 's country. In the following declaration רות pledges to stay with נעמי through thick and thin:
וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת אַל תִּפְגְּעִי בִי לְעָזְבֵךְ לָשׁוּב מֵאַחֲרָיִךְ כִּי אֶל אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכִי אֵלֵךְ וּבַאֲשֶׁר תָּלִינִי אָלִין עַמֵּךְ עַמִּי וֵאלֹקַיִךְ אֱלֹקָי : בַּאֲשֶׁר תָּמוּתִי אָמוּת וְשָׁם אֶקָּבֵר כֹּה יַעֲשֶׂה ה ' לִי וְכֹה יֹסִיף כִּי הַמָּוֶת יַפְרִיד בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵךְ :
And Ruth replied, 'Do not urge me to leave you, to turn back, or to not follow you. For wherever you go, I will go; wherever you lodge, I will lodge; your people will be my people, and your God my God. Where you die, I will die, and there will I be buried. Thus and more will the Lord do to me if anything but death parts me from you' (1:16-17).
נעמי and רות return to בית לחם and רות goes out to the fields to collect barley in accordance with the law allowing the poor to keep whatever the harvesters drop (ויקרא כג :כב ). The field she happens to visit belongs to בֹּעַז , who turns out to be a distant relative of נעמי . בעז arrives at his field and asks his workers who the new woman is. When he discovers she is רות , who has shown such kindness to his relative נעמי , he insists on giving her food as if she were one of his workers, and providing her with extra barley to take home. נעמי is delighted to hear that בעז has promised to take special care of רות , and רות spends the rest of the harvest season collecting in בעז 's field (chapter 2). נעמי sends רות to בעז 's threshing floor one night to encourage him to fulfill his responsibility as a relative, and marry her. רות goes stealthily down to the threshing floor and waits until בעז has eaten and gone to sleep. She then uncovers his feet and waits for him to notice her. בעז awakes with a start, and after determining who exactly the woman is lying at his feet, promises that he will indeed marry her. First, however, he must speak with a man who is a closer relative to נעמי (and hence to רות ) than he is, for he has a stronger claim to רות (chapter 3). בעז publicly charges the nearer relative, called הַגּוֹאֵל - the redeemer, with fulfilling his duty in marrying רות and buying נעמי 's land, but the man is not interested. בעז and רות marry and have a son, עוֹבֵד . The text concludes by listing the lineage from בעז 's ancestor יהודה to the couple's great-grandson דוד , Israel's second king (chapter 4). מגילת רות is read on the holiday of שבועות .
רְזוֹן בֶּן אֶלְיָדָע (מלכים א יא:כג)
An adversary of שלמה from ארם .
רָחָב (יהושע ב, ו:טו-כה)
A prostitute or innkeeper in יריחו who shelters and assists the two spies sent by יהושע prior to the nation's conquest of ארץ כנען . רחב hides the two men from soldiers of יריחו who are searching for them. In return for this deed, רחב requests and receives assurances that she and her family will be spared when Israel attacks. According to the מדרש , רחב later converts and marries יהושע (מגילה יד :).
רְחַבְיָה בֶּן אֱלִיעֶזֶר (דברי הימים א כג:יז, כו:כה )
A לוי from the קהת family (and משה 's grandson) after whom a division of לְוִיִּם is named. רחביה also serves as a treasurer for the sanctuary.
רְחַבְעָם בֶּן שְׁלֹמֹה (מלכים א יב, יד:כא-לא, דברי הימים א ג:י, דברי הימים ב י-יב )
Successor to שלמה המלך , third king in the line of דוד . When רחבעם takes charge of the nation his subjects plead with him to ease the burdens of taxation and forced labour imposed by שלמה . רחבעם consults with his senior ministers who advise him to agree to the request. But רחבעם foolishly follows the advice of his junior advisers who tell him to increase the burden on the people. The nation rebels and רחבעם finds himself with a diminished kingdom of שבט יהודה and שבט בנימין . רחבעם prepares to fight a war against ישראל but the prophet שְׁמַעְיָה tells him to stand down - the split is the will of God. רחבעם accepts this divine decree. Nevertheless, רבחעם and ירבעם (who takes over the rest of the nation) battle continually throughout their reigns. Once king, רחבעם engages in idolatry and has eighteen wives and sixty concubines. שישק king of Egypt attacks the בית המקדש , stealing golden shields that שלמה had fashioned. רחבעם 's son אֲבִיָּם succeeds him after 17 years of rule.
רְחוֹב (נחמיה י:יב)
A לוי during the time of נחמיה , רחוב is a signatory to a pledge - an אֲמָנָה - affirmed by the leaders of the community. Those who sign the declaration promise to observe the commandments of the Torah, to refrain from intermarrying, to avoid commerce on Shabbat, and to make regular donations to the Temple.
רְחוּם (נְחוּם) (עזרא ב:ב, נחמיה ז:ז, יב:ג )
A Jew returning with זְרֻבָּבֶל to יהודה following the edict of כּוֹרֶשׁ . This might be the same רחום who is a signatory to a pledge - an אֲמָנָה - affirmed by the leaders of the community in the time of נחמיה (נחמיה י :כו ). Those who sign the declaration promise to observe the commandments of the Torah, to refrain from intermarrying, to avoid commerce on Shabbat, and to make regular donations to the Temple.
רְחוּם (עזרא ד:ז-כד )
A Persian politician stationed in the city of שֹׁמְרוֹן . Local non-Jewish residents in Israel appeal to the Jews to allow them to participate in the reconstruction of the Jewish state but are rebuffed. They therefore persuade רחום to send a letter to his king אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא in Persia, arguing that the Jews' project must be stopped, for its completion will lead to a Jewish rebellion. The king is convinced and the building is halted temporarily.
רְחוּם בֶּן בָּנִי (נחמיה ג:יז )
This לוי is credited with participating in the construction of the walls of ירושלים in the time of נחמיה .
רָחֵל (בראשית כט-לה, רות ד:יא)
Wife of יעקב , mother of יוסף and בנימין , and daughter of לבן . Escaping from עשו , יעקב arrives in חרן seeking his uncle לבן . He meets רחל at the well and falls in love with her. לבן agrees to let יעקב marry רחל on condition that יעקב first work seven years tending לבן 's sheep. After seven years יעקב is eager to marry רחל but on the wedding night לבן sends רחל 's sister לאה in her place and יעקב is deceived. Enraged and heartbroken, יעקב commits to another seven years of work so that he can marry רחל too. Like her mother-in-law, רחל is barren and after her sister לאה gives יעקב four sons, רחל complains to יעקב about her situation. יעקב reacts angrily, saying that he cannot play God. Eventually, רחל does have a son whom she names יוסף . When יעקב escapes from לבן 's house רחל steals her father's idols and then lies to keep them from him (פרשת ויצא ). רחל has a second son whom she names בֶּן -אוֹנִי (renamed בִּנְיָמִין by יעקב ) and it is during labour with this child that she dies. יעקב buries his beloved wife on the road to בית לחם (פרשת וישלח ). When רוּת and בֹּעַז marry (רות ד ), the townsfolk of בית לחם bless רות by saying that God should make her like רחל and לאה who built up the house of Israel. רחל is believed to be the matriarch who is most distressed over Israel's exile, based on the phrase from ירמיה לא :טו - רָחֵל מְבַכָּה עַל בָּנֶיהָ - רחל weeps for her children.
רַחַם בֶּן שֶׁמַע (דברי הימים א ב:מד)
father of אִתַּי
רִיפַת בֶּן גֹּמֶר (דִּיפַת) (בראשית י:ג, דברי הימים א א:ו)
father of יְהוֹנָדָב
father of מַלְכִּיָּה